Mitsuo Ichikawa


  • Mitsuo Ichikawa
  • Emeritus Professor
  • Anthropology, African Area Studies/Coexistence of human with nature in tropical Africa/Wildlife, Forest conservation, Resource Use, Indigenous knowledge

Research Summary

Based on research material from anthropological/ethnological studies of hunter-gatherer and agricultural peoples in Central Africa, I examine the diverse perceptions and utilization of nature and the inter-dependent relationships between humans and nature as well as changes therein. In addition, I explore conservation and sustainable utilization of nature from an anthropological standpoint.


Japan Association for African Studies
Japanese Society of Cultural Anthropology
The Society for Ecological Anthropology
Primate Society of Japan
The Japan Society of Tropical Ecology
International Society of Ethnobiology



  • 2012 "Land Use, Livelihood, and Changing Relationships Between Man and Forests in Central Africa", Edited by, African Study Monographs, supplementary Issue, No.43, pp.1-178 (Ichikawa, M, D. Kimura and H. Yasuoka, eds.).
  • 2006 Ecology and Change in the Hunter-gatherer Societies in the Western Congo Basin (supplementary issue of Africa Study Monographs, no.34:1-142 (eds. M. Ichikawa and H. Yasuoka).
  • 2003 Recent Advances in Central African Hunter-gatherer Studies (Supplementary issue of African Study Monographs, no.28, pp.1-157 (eds. Ichikawa, M. and D. Kimura).
  • 2001 African Hunter-gatherers: Persisting Cultures and Contemporary Problems (Supplementary Issue of African Study Monographs, No. 26), pp.1-280 (eds. J. Tanaka, M.Ichikawa and D. Kimura).


  • 2016 Bushmeat crisis, forestry reforms and contemporary hunting among Central African forest hunters. Reyes-García V, Pyhälä A (eds.) Hunter-gatherers in a changing world, Springer, pp. 59-75.(Mitsuo Ichikawa, Shiho Hattori and Hirokazu Yasuoka)
  • 2014 Forest Conservation and Indigenous Peoples in The Congo Basin: New Trends toward Reconciliation between Global Issues and Local Interest. In: Hewlett, B. (ed.) Hunter-gatherers of the Congo Basin : cultures, histories and biology of African Pygmies. Transaction Publishers, New Jersey, pp. 321-342.
  • 2012 Forest Reform and Indigenous People in DRC: from the experience with the World Bank Inspection Panel. World Bank/IMF Annual Meeting, Oct.13, Tokyo International Forum
  • 2012 Central African Forests as Hunter-gatherers' Living Environment: An Approach to Historical Ecology. African Study Monographs, supplementary Issue, No.43, pp.3-14.
  • 2011 Environmental Knowledge among Central African Hunter-gatherers: Types of Knowledge and Intra-cultural Variations, In: Information and Its Role in Hunter- Gatherer Bands, edited by Robert Whallon, William A. Lovis and Robert K. Hitchcock, Costen Institute of Archaeology, Los Angeles:117-132.( Mitsuo Ichikawa, Shiho Hattori and Hirokazu Yasuoka)
  • 2011 Anthropologie Japonaises en Afrique. Techniques & Culture 57, Centre Norbert Elias-L’Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), Marseille, pp. 120-141.
  • 2010 Forty Years of Japanese Research on Central African Hunter-gatherers: Findings in Ethnobotany and Historical Ecology and Their Implications for Contemporary Issues. Special Seminar at L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), 16th June, Marseille, France.
  • 2009 Forests and Indigenous People in Post-conflict Democratic Republic of Congo. In : Kato, G. A. Uyar (eds.), Question of Poverty and Development in Conflict and Conflict Resolution, Afrasian Studies, Ryukoku University, 211-226.
  • 2007 L'évitement alimentaire des viandes d’animaux sauvages chez les chasseurs-cueilleurs d'Afrique centrale. Dounias, E., Motte-Florac, E. et Mesnil, M. (eds.) Le symbolisme des animaux - L’animal "clé de voûte" dans la tradition orale et les interactions homme-nature. (Colloques et Séminaires-IRD), Paris.
  • 2006 Problems in the Conservation of Rainforests in Cameroon. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 33: 3-20.
  • 2005 The History and Current Situation of Anthropological Studies on Africa in Japan. The African Anthropologist (Journal of the Pan African Anthropological Association) 12(2): 158-171.
  • 2005 Food Sharing and Ownership among the Central African Hunter-gatherers: An Evolutionary Perspective. In Widlok, T. and W. Tadasse eds., Property and Equality, Oxford: Berghahn, 151-164.
  • 2004 The Japanese Tradition of Central African Hunter-gatherer Studies: with Comparative Observation on the French and American Traditions. In Alan Barnard ed., Hunter-Gatherers in History, Archaeology and Anthropology, Oxford: Berg Publishers, 103-114.
  • 2004 Benefit of Foresight: From evolutionary interest to global environmental problems. Before Farming, 2004(4):Article 7
  • 2003 Recent Advances in Central African Hunter-gatherer Studies. African Study Monographs, supplementary issue, no.28:1-6 (Ichikawa, M. and D. Kimura).
  • 2003 Comparative Ethnobotany of the Mbuti and Efe Hunter-gatherers in the Ituri Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo. African Study Monographs, vol.1/2:1-168 (Terashima, H. and M. Ichikawa).
  • 2003 Animal Food Avoidance among Central African Hunter-gatherers. Paper presented at the International Symposium on “Animal symbolism: the “keystone” animal in oral tradition and interactions between humans and nature,” Paris (Villejuif) - France, November, 12-14 (CD-ROM ).
  • 2002 Comment on 'The vines of complexity: Egalitarian structures and the institutionalization of inequality among the Enga', by Polly Wiessner. Current Anthropology, Vol.43(2): 258-259.
  • 2001 The forest world as circulation system: The impact of Mbuti habitation and subsistence activities on the forest environment", African Study Monographs, supplementary issue, no.26, pp.157-168.
  • 2001 Persisting cultures and contemporary problems among African hunter-gatherers. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue, No. 26, pp.1-8 (Mitsuo Ichikawa and Jiro Tanaka).
  • 2001 AFlora: A Database of Traditional Plant Use in Africa. Systematics and Geography of Plants, 71:749-756 (Mitsuo Ichikawa, Daiji Kimura and Hideaki Terashima).
  • 2000 "Interest in the Present" in the Nationwide Monetary Economy: The Case of Mbuti Hunters in Zaire. In, Schweitzer, P., M. Biesele and R. K. Hitchcock (eds.), Hunters and Gatherers in the Modern World. Berghahn, Oxford, pp.263-274.
  • 1999 Stable exchange in an unstable national economy. Paper read at the Seminar on Anthropological Theory. Department of Anthropology, LSE (University of London), 19th November.
  • 1999 Problems in the study of hunter-gatherer societies in the central African forests. Paper presented at the "African Seminar", University of Edinburgh, 17th November.
  • 1999 Mbuti Pygmies in Congo. Lee, R. B. and R. Daly (eds.), Encyclopedia of Hunter-Gatherers, Cambridge University Press:510-514.
  • 1999 Interactive process of man and nature in the Ituri Forest of the Democratic Republic of Congo: An Approach from Historical Ecology. In, Biesbrouck, Elders and Rossel (eds.), Challenging Elusiveness: Central African Hunter-gatherers in Multidisciplinary Perspective, University of Leiden Press, pp.141-152.
  • 1999 Comment on 'Reproductive Interests and Forager Mobility', by Douglas H. & B. Hewlett. Current Anthropology, Vol.40(4): 517-518.
  • 1998 The birds as indicators of the invisible world: Ethno-ornithology of the Mbuti hunter-gatherers. In: Man and Nature in Central African Forests (Supplementary Issue of African Study Monographs): 105-121.
  • 1996 Determinismes ecologique et culturels des choix alimentaires des chasseurs-cuilleurs Mbuti du Zaire. Hladik, C.M., A. Hladik, H. Pagezy, O.F.Linares et A. Froment (eds.), L'Alimentation en Forets Tropicales, UNESCO-MAB: 501-511.
  • 1996 Cultural Diversity in the Use of plants by Mbuti Hunter-gatherers in Northeastern Zaire: An Ethnobotanical Approach. Kent, S. (ed.), Cultual Diversity among Twentieth-Century Foragers, Cambridge University Press: 276-293(M. Ichikawa and H. Terashima).
  • 1996 Co-existence of Man and Nature in the African Rain Forest. Fukui and Ellen (eds.), Redefining Nature: Ecology. Culture and Domestication, Berg Publishers: 467-492.
  • 1993 Diversity and selectivity in the food of the Mbuti hunter-gatherers in Zaire. Hladik et al (eds.), Tropical Forest: People and Food. Paris, Parthenon Publishing (UNESCO-MAB Series): 487-495.
  • 1992 Traditional Use of Tropical Rainforest by the Mbuti Hunter-gatherers in Zaire. Topics in Primatology, University of Tokyo Press, p.305-317.
  • 1992 Comment on "Beyond the Original Affluent Society". Current Anthropology, Vol.33(1):
  • 1991 The Impact of Cash and Commoditization on the Life of the Mbuti Hunter-gatherers, Eastern Zaire. Senri Ethnological Studies, 30:135-162.
  • 1991 AFlora: Catalog of Useful Plants of Tropical Africa. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue, No.16:1-195(Terashima, H., M. Ichikawa and I. Ohta).
  • 1987 Wild Plant Utilization of the Balese and the Efe of the Ituri Forest, the Republic of Zaire. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue, 8: 1-78 (Terashima, H., M. Ichikawa and M. Sawada).
  • 1987 Food Restrictions of the Mbuti Pygmies, Eastern Zaire. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue、No.6: 97-121.
  • 1987 A Preliminary Report on the Ethnobotany of the Suiei Dorobo in Northern Kenya. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue, 7: 1-52.
  • 1986 Ecological Bases of Symbiosis, Territoriality and Intraband cooperation among the Mbuti Pygmies, SUGIA (Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika), Vol. 7 (1): 161-188.
  • 1985 A Comparison of Fishing Strategies in the Bangweulu Swamps, African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue, 4: 25-48.
  • 1983 La struttura sociale dei pigmei BaMbuti, Scienza & Tecnica, 83: 226-228.
  • 1983 An Examination of the Hunting-dependent Life of the Mbuti Pygmies, Eastern Zaire, African Study Monographs, Vol. 4: 55-76.
  • 1981 Ecological and Sociological Importance of Honey to the Mbuti Net hunters, Eastern Zaire. African Study Monographs, Vol.1: 55-68.
  • 1980 The Utilization of Wild Food Plants by the Suiei Dorobo in Northern Kenya. Journal of Anthropological Society of Japan, Vol.88(1): 25-48.
  • 1978 The Residential Groups of the Mbuti Pygmies. Senri Ethnological Studies, No.1, 131-188.