Top > African Study Monographs > ASM Back Number > Vol.33(2012) No.2
Vol.33 (2012) No.2
pp. 73-132

Robert K. HITCHCOCK
Department of Geography, Michigan State University

REFUGEES, RESETTLEMENT, AND LAND AND RESOURCE CONFLICTS:
THE POLITICS OF IDENTITY AMONG !XUN AND KHWE SAN IN NORTHEASTERN NAMIBIA

ABSTRACT

This study examines land use, natural resource, and development conflicts, and the effects of government policies in a remote area in northeastern Namibia, known formerly as West Bushmanland, now Tsumkwe West. !Xun and Khwe San who had been soldiers of the South African Defense Force in the Angolan and Namibian wars of independence in the 1970s and 1980s were resettled in this area along with their families. Namibian government resettlement and development projects were planned and implemented in the Tsumkwe West in the early 1990s. In part because of the ways in which !Xun and Khwe San identities were constructed over time by settlers, academics, policy-makers, the South African Defense Force, the colonial and post-colonial state, and San themselves, the people of Tsumkwe West, later, the N≠a Jaqna Conservancy, have had to struggle against other groups and the state for the stake in their land and resources. Drawing on anthropological research, work of non-government organizations, and interviews of people in the area over a period of two and a half decades, this study assesses some of the ways in which resettlement and land and resource policies have mutually affected the Namibian government, the military, private companies, donor agencies, non-government and community-based organizations, and a diverse set of peoples in northeastern Namibia.


Key Words: Refugees; Resettlement; Identity; Land use; Communal land tenure; Resource rights; !Xun; Khwe; Ju/’hoansi San; Namibia.

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pp. 133-143

Baltazar M.L. NAMWATA
Institute of Rural Development Planning (IRDP), Tanzania
Maseke R. MGABO
Institute of Rural Development Planning (IRDP), Tanzania
Provident DIMOSO
Institute of Rural Development Planning (IRDP), Tanzania

CATEGORIES OF STREET BEGGARS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING STREET BEGGING IN CENTRAL TANZANIA

ABSTRACT

This study examined categories of street beggars and factors influencing begging activities in Central Tanzania using Dodoma and Singida Municipalities as case studies. A cross-sectional research design was employed in this study. Structured questionnaires were administered to 130 street beggars, who were selected from various public spaces using a convenience sampling technique. Focus-group discussions, key-informant interviews, and observations were also used to collect primary data. The study found that street beggars fell into four categories namely beggars on the streets, beggars of the streets, beggars in the streets, and beggars of street families, based on where they slept after begging hours and contacts with their families. Furthermore, the phenomenon of street begging is an outcome of many factors, including poverty, unemployment, physical challenges, death of parents, and family disintegration. The study recommends that to address the phenomenon of street begging, policy planners and local government authorities must adopt multi-faceted, multi-targeted,


Key Words: Street beggars; Poverty; Urban problem; Dodoma; Singida; Tanzania.

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